Day 1 :
University of Nottingham, UK
Time : 10:00-10:40
Clive Roberts completed his Graduation in Physics in 1987 and PhD degree in Surface Physics in 1991 at Imperial College. He is currently Head of the School of Pharmacy-University of Nottingham and in the past, he has been the Founder and Director of the Nottingham Nanotechnology Centre (2007-2013). His research is focused on “Improving methods to develop new medicines” and has led to over 300 research publications. He has over 25 years of experience in “Formulation methods supported by advanced nanoscale characterization”. He has aided the development of a number of delivery platforms and medicines with many industrial partners. He has been working on the 2D and 3D printing of solid dosage formulations. He was a Co-founder of Molecular Profiles Ltd (now Juniper Pharmaceuticals) and was Founder of Eminate Ltd, an IP translation company of University of Nottingham.
Queen’s University, Canada
Time : 11:00-11:40
Randy E Ellis is a Professor at Queen's University at Kingston. His primary Queen's appointment is at School of Computing, and he is also appointed as a Professor in Departments of Mechanical and Material Engineering, Surgery, and Biomedical and Molecular Sciences. He is the Project Leader of a large multidisciplinary group that investigates advanced health-care delivery. He is Fellow of the American Society of Mechanical Engineering and of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. He has published more than 300 refereed scientific contributions and served extensively on editorial boards and program committees of major international conferences.
This work is a retrospective analysis of our 13 years of experience and a prediction of future prospects. A patient-specific instrument (PSI) is typically implemented as a rigid structure with two physically linked elements: a negative or mirror surface that physically mates with an anatomical region; and a means of guiding a surgical instrument, typically a surgical drill. Historically, early PSI’s were created from CT scans and manufactured by computer-numerical machining. It is now more common to use additive manufacturing to create a PSI. Although early PSI’s provided an improvement technical accuracy, more recent clinical trials are bringing into question the clinical benefit for high volume procedures. We believe that the seeming discrepancy between high technical accuracy and subsequent patient outcomes is attributable to two effects: selection of the procedure and patient for PSI application, and the inability to intraoperatively choose a surgical alternative. Since 2005, we have performed hundreds PSI-guided cases. These have included: hip resurfacing and total hip arthroplasty; post-traumatic total knee arthroplasty; knee osteochondral transplantation in younger patients; radius osteotomy about the wrist; pelvic reconstruction following oncological surgery; peri-orbital tumor access; and many one-of-a-kind, technically difficult, orthopedic procedures. We have found significant longer-term improvements for hip resurfacing, which is consistent with our 20+-year successes in image-guided orthopedic surgery. These surgical procedures share the properties of being technically difficult and in having nearby bone surfaces that are naturally free of osteophytes and periosteum, both of which can physically interfere with the mating process of PSI application. We have found PSI’s to effectively solve relatively straightforward navigation problems. The technique relies critically on a high quality CT 3D image that can be easily and accurately segmented. Osteophytes, in particular, have been obstacles in registration regions. Commercially available PSI’s may not adequately address this fundamental problem. When physical registration is problematic, the PSI technique must be converted to surgical navigation or to an older, non-navigated technology. We propose to bridge this technology gap by linking the physical registration of a PSI with electromagnetic navigation. In laboratory studies and a pilot cadaveric trial, this hybrid of a PSI with navigation has proven to be as accurate as navigation alone and considerably easier to perform. This technical advance places additive manufacturing of a PSI in a spectrum of technical solutions, potentially broadening the reach and effectiveness of them as implementations of image-guided surgery
Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Poland
Time : 11:40-12:20
Bogdan Dybala has completed his PhD from the Wroclaw University of Science and Technology and continued for the habilitation procedure, completed in 2014. He is the deputy director of the Centre for Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (CAMT), a research and education group at the University. His research interests include additive manufacturing and reverse engineering, especially in biomedical applications. He has published more than 35 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as a reviewer for journals and funding organizations.
Medical products require high quality and functionality – manufacturers seek ways of improving them and are willing to adopt new technologies, including for additive manufacturing (AM). Some medical products perform better, if at all, if they closely fit anatomic features of their user – this calls for capabilities to design and manufacture 3-dimensional geometries, much easier to achieve with AM than with more conventional technologies.
The presentation will cover methods of designing and producing anatomic models for training and education purposes, models for off-line surgical operation planning or rehearsal and tools supporting such operations – products most valuable for their shapes, based on selected patients’ anatomies.
More advanced medical products manufactured with AM are implants – either improved versions of established solutions, like hip or knee joint replacements with better biomechanical properties, or totally new types of personalised implants, for example scaffolds supporting bone regrowth in patients with damaged or surgically removed part of a mandible. The presentation will discuss methods of manufacturing such implants and show future potential of additive manufacturing in tissue and organ bioprinting.
- 3D Printing: Additive Manufacturing Technology & Market| 3D Design | 3D Bioprinting | 3D Printing in Medicine | 3D Biomaterials | Supply Chain Management | 3D Printing Industries | 3D Printing in Orthopaedics and Traumatology
University of Nottingham, UK
GeSiM mbH, Germany
Time : 12:20-12:50
Frank-Ulrich Gast completed his PhD in Biochemistry at University of Hannover, Germany and; Post-doctoral studies at University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, at Max-Planck Institute for Biochemistry, Martinsried, and at Justus Liebig University, Gießen. Since 2002, he is in the marketing & sales team of GeSiM, a major provider of microfluidic instrumentation and lab automation. He has more than 20 entries in PubMed, mainly on protein-nucleic acid interactions, and published more papers in other journals.
Manufacturing three-dimensional bioscaffolds is revolutionizing cell biology, as only 3D cell cultures are physiological and eventually lead to printed organs for transplantation. GeSiM has therefore developed a 3D biomaterial printer, which is not just another “me-too” instrument, as revealed by its unprecedented flexibility. The BioScaffolder is based on a proven belt-driven robotic platform with up to seven Z-drives, controlled by a programmable logic controller box also providing pressure regulation and liquid handling, and one software for all configurations. Mounting other tools converts the BioScaffolder to numerous other lab robots, i.e. for micro arraying, standard liquid handling, parallel chemical micro-synthesis, bioscaffold printing, micro contact printing (µ CP), nanoimprint lithography (NIL), and more.
The standard BioScaffolder combines gas-pressure-controlled extrusion of three pastes (cooled or heated) with non-contact spotting of small drops of signal proteins, cell suspensions etc. Fine adjustment works by measuring tip positions and substrate heights. Further head functionalities are: camera for target finding and quality control, UV cross-linking, printing of vascular (core/shell) structures, high-temperature filament extrusion, displacement liquid dispensing with disposable tips, dual piezo pipetting with in-flight droplet mixing, glue and powder micro dispensing, solvent dispensing and evaporation, cap opening, vacuum gripping, µCP/NIL stamping, spin coating, and pH titration. Tools on the base plate can be high-temperature reactors and holders for tips/needles, microliter plates (cooled/heated), slides, Eppendorf Tubes or reaction vessels; completed by ancillary tools like tip cleaning and measuring station, washing/drying stations and stroboscope for piezo pipettes. Tools can be mixed and matched. We will present the numerous options and practical examples.
Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium
Time : 12:50-13:20
Lincy Pyl is a Professor at Vrije Universiteit Brussel. Her research expertise is related to structural design and analysis, numerical modeling, metal and composite structures, structural behavior under exceptional loading conditions, mechanical characterization and behavior of lightweight/3D printed materials under fatigue, under high speed load conditions like blast, impact and crush.
Metal additive manufacturing technologies opened the door to the production of near-net shape products, lightweight structures and allow complex shapes to be manufactured. This innovation in combination with the need for assessment of the structural integrity, also in hard to access areas of engineering structures, has led to the development of an effective Structural Health Monitoring (eSHM) system. The system is based on a network of capillaries integrated in metallic structures to detect and monitor cracks by direct measurement of pressure changes. As these parts, like for example aircraft components in operational conditions, are cyclically loaded, their fatigue life is studied. The specimens with capillary are produced using two AM techniques: The metal-based powder bed fusion, Selective Laser Melting (SLM), and the direct Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) technologies. The existing literature clearly illustrates that the layer-wise manner of building, the rapid solidification and the high cooling rates inherent in AM processes most probably lead to residual stresses, roughness and porosities in the AM components which are negatively influencing the mechanical behavior and fatigue life. Therefore, four-point bending fatigue tests on AM and conventional specimens were conducted with special attention to crack nucleation, crack propagation, residual stresses and robustness of the eSHM system. The crack detection capability of the novel eSHM concept on a metallic structure has been demonstrated by means of various Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) methods.
Kanazawa University, Japan
Title: Oxygen concentration and conversion distributions in a layer-by-layer UV-cured film used as a simplified model of a 3D UV inkjet printing system
Time : 14:10-14:40
Kentaro Takiame completed his PhD and became an Assistant Professor at Kyoto University. He is the Director of Advanced Reactive System lab, Kanazawa University, Japan. He has published more than 40 papers in reputed journals.
Three-dimensional (3D) ultraviolet (UV) inkjet printers represent a versatile technology for creating complex functional structures. During their operation, 3D objects are formed by repeating cycles of drawing a UV-curable resin with inkjet nozzles and then solidifying it with UV irradiation. In this study, the activity performed by a 3D UV inkjet printer was simulated by spin casting a 33 μm thick layer of UV-curable resin (containing diurethane dimethacrylate and 1-hydroxycyclohexyl phenyl ketone compounds mixed at a weight ratio of 99:1) onto a Si wafer followed by photo polymerization for 2 s at a UV irradiation of 10 mW cm-2. Afterwards, the second resin layer with a thickness of 33 μm was spun-cast onto the first layer and photo-polymerized under the same conditions. The conversion distribution of C=C bonds in the UV-curable resin was investigated via confocal laser Raman microscopy and numerical calculations, which took into account the kinetics of photo-polymerization and oxygen inhibition reactions. The obtained experimental data were in good agreement with the results of numerical calculations, which attributed the existence of the two plateaus on the plot of the C=C bond conversion distribution to the formation of an oxygen-lean point. In addition, the effects of the UV intensity, irradiation time, lamination time, photo-initiator concentration, and concentration of dissolved oxygen on the oxygen concentration and conversion distributions across the depth direction have been examined. The obtained results revealed that the increases in the UV intensity, irradiation time, and photo-initiator concentration as well as the decrease in the initial dissolved oxygen concentration effectively increased the conversion of C=C bonds in the resin film and decreased the thickness of an un-polymerized layer.
Hongik University, South Korea
Time : 14:40-15:10
Haeseong Jee has completed his PhD at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA and Post-doctoral studies from National Institute of Standards and Technology in USA. He is a Professor in Department of Mechanical and System Design Eng. at Hong Ik University, South Korea. He has published more than 40 journal papers in reputed journals and has served as a Chief Vice President of Korea Society of Mechanical Engineering. His major research interests include CAD, GD&T, and design rules for additive manufacturing.
Directed energy deposition (DED), an ASTM (American Society for Testing and Material) process classification of metal 3D printing or additive manufacturing (AM) process has enabled to build full density metallic tools and parts using metal powders precisely delivered and controlled for deposition with no powder bed. Recently, DED processes, equipped with more than 3-axis tool mechanism and no additional machining process, turned out to be able to deposit overhang/undercut features directly on a part in multiple directions. Two additional axes of rotating and tilting added to the working table where the part is located need to be controlled using an advanced process management skill that can control multi-axis tool paths along the part. As the previous approach for a simple multi-axis slicing algorithm can only provide a stepwise motion control separately for each of the tool and the part, an integrated 5-axis motion control is needed for the continuous interaction between the tool and the part. A critical barrier to the approach is possible interference between the tool and the part. This study first provides a diagnose algorithm detecting singular part features requiring multi-axis motion control during the build. Second, build tool paths on each 3D build layer after the new slicing method avoiding any possible interference between the tool and the part is generated with a subsidiary visual simulation. The method has been implemented on two example STL models to be built using a DED process.
Wrocław University of Science & Technology, Poland
Time : 15:10-15:40
Tomasz Kurzynowski has completed his PhD at Wroclaw University of Science and Technology and a professional development program at Stanford University. He is the Manager of Metal Additive Manufacturing Technology & Material Laboratory, a member of the board of the Science Infrastructure Management Society. He has published more than 20 papers in reputed journals. His current research interest include: additive manufacturing technologies and design methods for functional optimization or weight reduction of designed or re-engineered parts, especially for the aerospace industry.
Metal additive manufacturing creates opportunities for producing both monolithic volumes and spatial structures of complex geometries, directly from metal powders. Therefore, the technology is recognized as a promise to solve problems in many industrial sectors: automotive, aerospace and medicine. However, the problem is the availability of a wide range of materials, so that, engineers can select materials with desired properties. Many years of AM experience at CAMT-FPC resulted in proven methodology of materials development for metal additive manufacturing. The methodology allows expanding the use of metal AM in a range of industries. The following steps of materials development will be discussed: Determination of material requirements (definition of materials working conditions); selection of a group/groups of materials that match the requirements (not necessarily from the same alloy group as in conventional use); literature studies of specific materials’ properties (influence of different processing techniques on materials’ microstructures); powder material characteristics (quality control in terms of technology requirements); development of processing parameters (several-step experimental research using experiment design methods); microscopic observations, mechanical testing, special properties investigation (detailed definition of phenomena affecting material properties); post-process development (processes aimed at removing possible defects of the material or parts resulting from the nature of the AM process) and; construction and testing of the demonstrator part(s).
Kamila Kołodziejczyk is a PhD Student at the Department of Experimental Surgery and Biomaterials Research at the Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry of Wroclaw Medical University, Wrocław, Poland. She holds a Masters Degree in Dentistry of Wroclaw Medical University, Wrocław, Poland. She is a member of the Student Scientific Society of Experimental Dentistry and Biomaterials Research. Her research interests are odontogenic inflammatory processes, the regeneration of bone tissue and bioresorbabale materials in dental surgery.
Currenltly, 3D technology has indeed a significant impact on mandibular reconstrucions, especially after cancer surgeries like hemisection or mandibulectomy. In comparision with traditional reconstructive surgery, 3D techniques enable to restore function of stomatognathic system and rebuild face appearance in considrably more precise way because of individual adjustment of lost parts of patient’s mandible. Mandibular reconstruction is an extremely complex procedure due to complicated shape of the bone and despite the fact that the movements of mandible are correlated in both temporomandibular joints. The most popular 3D techniques of mandibular restoration are: reconstruction with titanum implants bent to mandibular margins and angle, hydroxyapatite-coated titanum implants, CAD/CAM polyamide implants and autograft from fibula. 3D computed tomography mandible models give an important opportunity of pre-operative planning the extensiveness of surgery and kinds of incisions as well. Thanks to CAD/CAM system, there is a possibility of additional processing of mandible models that results in very appropriate face aesthetics.